Pan Ties of Qadiri-Shadhili Branches
“The Mohammedian Sciences (al-‘ulum al-Mohammediya) are 111 in number. Each science contains 111.000 units and each unit contains into 111.000 sub-sciences. Whoever obtains a single Mohammedian Science will obtain the sciences from the first generation to the last generation. The most complete of the Saints the likes of Mawlana Abdessalam ibn Mashish, [Moulay Abdellqadir al-Jilani and Sidi Ibn Arabi al-Hatimi], have obtained 72 Mohammedian Sciences. As for Sidi Abul Hassan Shadhili, he has obtained 71." - Khatm al-Awliya Mawlana Abul Abbas Tijani
“All the paths will be incorporated into the Path of Shadhili (may Allah be pleased with him), except this Mohammedi Ibrahimi Hanifi Spiritual Path of ours, for it is self sufficient." - Khatm al-Awliya Mawlana Abul Abbas Tijani
The Qadiriya Sufi Order, so named after the Great Qutb, Mawlana Shaykh Abdellqadir Jilani al-Hassani (d. 561/1166), occupies a pre-eminent place in Moroccan Sufism. Although its organisational structure came into prominence several decades after the death of the Shaykh, who came to be looked upon as an ideal of spiritual excellence and achievement. Later generations however developed all sorts of legends surrounding his personality, and the real nature of his spiritual activity became shrouded in innumerable miracle stories woven around him by his followers and circulated by his biographers. Shaykh Moulay Abdellqadir Jilani combined in his person the twin roles of a esoteric mentor and a exoteric teacher, but after him the two functions became separated. His son Sidi Abdelwahhab (d. 593/1196) succeeded him in the madrasa and his other son Moulay Abderrazaq (d. 603/1206) turned to spiritual discipline and looked after the zawiya. It was he who built near the grave of his father a mosque with seven guilt domes. The Mongolian Halagu's sack of Baghdad in 658/1258 brought to an end both the madrasa and the zawiya, and the Shaykh's descendents became scattered and dispersed. Thereafter those associated with his family turned their attention to organising the order in different regions. Those of his family members who remained in Baghdad constituted what has been called "the moral centre of the order"; others settled in Aleppo, Cairo and Fez.
The Qadiriya was first introduced in Morocco by Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellqadir Jilani who dwelled Fez after a short stay in Amsun near Taza. His offspring worked together with the progeny of Sidi Ibrahim ibn Abdellqadir Jilani (d. 593/1196) and his brother Sidi Abdellaziz who pierced the Idrissid capital in the early seventh/thirteenth century to establish Qadiri zawiyas in the Sharifian State. The fall of Granada in 897/1492 aided more Qadiri sharifs to join their cousins in Fez and reinforced the already established Qadiri network. The conventional work of Shaykh Sidi Mohammed ibn Mohammed al-Qadiri Andalusi (d. 950/1535) in particular regenerated the Qadiri institutional structure in Fez and was fundamental in the production of mystic figures in cooperation with Moroccan Shadhilis such as Sidi Mohammed Zaytouni (d. after 900/1449).
Most certainly it was during the lifetime of Shaykh Moulay Abdellqadir that the influence of Qadiriya was felt in Morocco. Although non-Moroccan Tariqa affiliations are seldom mentioned in sources from this period, Sufis whom one would today identify as 'Qadiris' can be recognised by their devotion to the Almohad-era saints Sidi Abu Ya'aza Yalnour (d. 572/1177) and his disciple Sidi Abu Madyan al-Ghawt (d. 594/1198), who were assimilated into the Qadiriya. Perhaps because of Abu Ya'aza's close identification with the Mohammedian paradigm, the folkloric tradition of Morocco has long associated him with Moulay Abdellqadir, who enjoyed descent from the Prophet (peace and blessing upon him) on both his mother's and his father's side. By the nineteenth century, the legend linking Abu Ya'aza to Moulay Abdellqadir was so-established that the Sufi biographer Sidi Mohammed ben Jaafar Kattani (d. 1345/1930) reported in his Salwat al-anfas a tradition in which the Shaykh of Baghdad tells his followers: "There is an Abyssinian (habashi) in the Maghrib, whose name is an-Nur and whose kunya is Abu Ya'aza. He occupies a great station, which only few of the First and the Last has attained".
Similar spiritual linkages have also linked Sidi Abu Madyan with Moulay Abdellqadir Jilani prior to their physical meeting on Mount Arafa in the pilgrimage. Sidi Abu Madyan's student, Sidi Abu Mohammed Salih al-Majiri (d. 631/1234), the Patron Saint of Asfi, reports that Abu Madyan said to his disciple: "I saw al-Khadir and asked him about the Shaykhs of the east and the west in our time. Then I asked him about Shaykh Abdellqadir Jilani and he said: 'He is the Imam of the truthful and the proof of the gnostics. He is the inspiration behind gnosis, but his destiny is not to be physically among the Awliya. I arrange the ranks of Awliya according to his direction.'" Moulay Abderrazaq ibn Abdellqadir Jilani's (d. 603/1206-7) student, Sidi Abul Abbas Tajuddin Ahmed Sharishi Slawi (d. 641/1243 in El-Fayyoum, Egypt), the noted Moroccan mystic and author of the famous Sharishiya poem, had also addressed this sanctity and supremacy in his writings.
As early as the ninth/fifteenth century, it is likely that a connection between the Shadhili and Qadiri brotherhoods in Morocco was established by the Imam Sidi Mohammed ibn Sulayman Jazouli (d. 869/1465) himself, for much of Jazoulite ritual borrows from Sidi Abu Mohammed Salih al-Majiri. The Jazulite Sufi Sidi Abdellaziz Tabba'a (d. 914/1508) believed that the Shaykh who could claim lineal descent from the Prophet Sidna Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) exercised spiritual authority over his followers by virtue of divine right. This sharifian interpretation of authority was an important hallmark of the Jazouliya. It was also important among the Moroccan Qadiriya, whose hagiographers stressed that Moulay Abdellqadir Jilani's status as the Pole of the Time (Qutb az-Zaman) was a matter of birthright as well. Apart from the rule of formal appointment by one's predecessor and the transmission of the Prophetic Inheritance through the bloodline, there is a little to distinguish the Qadirite saints from the Shadhilite ones.
Throughout the tenth/sixteenth century, the ranks of the Jazouliya included both Shadhili and Qadiri Sufis. It would have been highly unusual for Qadiris to have been initiated into this order if there have not been a connection between the Jazouliya and the Qadiriya in the first place. Sidi Abdellaziz Tabba'a provides evidence of such a connection in a poem which traces his spiritual genealogy. This poem entitled Salail al-anwar wa tuhfat manaqib al-akhyar (Offsprings of light and fruits of the exploits of the virtuous), includes the following verse:My banner covers the Spiritual Axes and is raised above them, And Sidi Abdellqadir Jilani is a heaven in my sky!
Shaykh Tabba'a's attempts to link himself doctrinally to Moulay Abdellqadir Jilani is significant, since it comes from a strong partisan of the Shadhiliya. Further evidence of a doctrinal connection between the Jazouliya and the Qadiriya can be found in the invocations of Imam Mohammed al-Jazouli. In his Wednesday litany of Dalail al-Khayrat, Imam Sidi Mohammed Jazouli reproduces verbatim Moulay Abdellqadir's "Minor Prayer" (As-Salat as-Sughra) on behalf of the Prophet Sidna Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him): "Oh God, bless our Chieftain Sidna Mohammed, whose light precedes creation and whose appearance is a mercy to the worlds, to the number of Your creatures who have gone before and who remain and [to the number of] those among them who are saved and damned; a blessing beyond number that exceeds all bounds; a blessing without limitation, end, or conclusion; an eternal blessing through Your eternal nature; and protect his Family and Companions for all time."
Qadiri-Shadhili ties is also represented in the disciplehood of the great Shadhilite mystic Sidi Ahmed Zarruq al-Fasi (d. 899/1493) to the most influential Qadiri zawiya in late fifteenth-century Fez called Zawiyat Bu Laqtut (Zawiya of the Owner of Cats). This zawiya had long been linked to the way of Sidi Abu Madyan al-Ghawt. It was originally built by Sidi Ali Boughaleb (d. 568/1172-3), a student of Sidi Ahmed ibn al-Arif Tanji (d. 536/1141), who taught the Sunan of at-Tirmidi to Sidi Abu Madyan al-Ghawt in the Qarawiyyine mosque. During his advanced studies in Fez Sidi Ahmed Zarruq took the hand Sidi Mohammed Jazouli as well as Zawiyat Bu Laqtut's teacher Sidi Mohammed Zaytouni (d. after 900/1449) before he travelled to Egypt and met with the Shadhili master Sidi Mohammed al-Hadrami (d. 787/1385). It is very worth to mention as well that the faqih Sidi Abdellhaqq Ibn Atiyya (d. 542/1147) cited in his Fahrasa an initiatory chain that links Sidi Mohammed Hadrami to Moulay Abdellqadir Jilani through Sidi Ahmed ibn Achir (d. 764/1362), the Patron Saint of Salé and disciple of Sidi Abu Zakariyya al-Hahi (d. end of seventh/thirteenth century), himself a student of Asfi city's patron saint, Sidi Abu Mohammed Salih Majiri (d. 631/1216), himself the teacher of Sidi Mohammed ibn Harazem ("Grandson of Sidi Ali ibn Harzihim"; d. 633/1218) - Sidi Abul Hassan Shadhili's (d. 656/1241) first Sufi teacher.
Nicknamed the "Blind Viper" because of the powerful "bite" of his curses, Shaykh Zaytouni was first the principal exponent of the way of Abu Madyan in Morocco before he took the hands of Sidi Ali Salih al-Andalusi (d. 903/1488), himself the pupil of Sidi Abdellaziz Tabba'a (d. 914/1499). The Shaykh used also his ties with the incoming Qadiri sharifs to establish a reputation as the saintly protector of the Moroccan Hajj caravan. In this way he was able to link his zawiya to other Qadiri orders in the central and eastern Maghrib. Much like Sidi Abu Mohammed Salih and his successors Sidi Ahmed ibn Salih (d. 660/1262) and Sidi Ibrahim ibn Salih (ca. 696/1297) in the thirteenth century (who were also linked to the Qadiriya through their connections in Egypt), Shaykh Zaytouni concluded safe-conduct agreements with Arab tribes in the countryside between Morocco and Tunisia.
يقول العلامة سيدي
الفقيه أبي عبد الله سيدي محمد أكنسوس:
والشرط الرابع أن من أخذ هذه الطريقة (التجانية)
لا يزور أحدا من الأولياء الأموات
والأحياء زيارة استمداد ، أي لأجل طلب
المدد منهم، أي لا يزورهم بقصد أن
ينفعوه أو يرفعوا عنه مضرة ، فإنه لا
يقدر أحد غير شيخه أن ينفعه أو يضره بشيء
. وهذا الشرط غير خاص
بطريقة شيخنا رضي الله عنه بل هو شرط
معروف عند كل المشايخ يجمعون بذلك همة
أصحابهم حتى قال الشيخ سيدي عبد
الوهاب الشعراني رضي الله عنه في كتابه
اليواقيت والجواهر نقلا عن الشيخ
الإمام ابن عربي الحاتمي رضي الله عنه:
كما لاتكون زوجة بين الإثنين لا يكون
شرع بين رسولين ولا يكون مريد بين شيخين
. وانظر إلى قضية الشيخ
سيدي أحمد زروق مع سيدي عبد الله
الزيتوني وسيدي أحمد الحضرمي وإلى
ذلك أشار الشريشي في الرائية بقوله
In Marinid Morocco, while Sidi Abdellah Ghazwani (d. 935/1528-9), Sidi al-Hadi Ben Aissa (d. 933/1526), Sidi Abdelwarit al-Yasluti (d. After 960/1554), Sidi Mohammed Mesbahi (d. 964/1557) and other members of the Jazouliya were establishing zawiyas in Marrakech, Fez, and Meknes disseminating their doctrine among the Arabs of northern Morocco, a greater political role for Sufis was being advocated by the Qadiris who had also been influenced by the doctrines of Sidi Mohammed al-Jazouli, who was himself a close friend of a Qadiri Sufi from Meknes named Sidi Mohammed al-Amine Attar Zerhouni (d. 860/1456). Their political engagement was a reaction to the Marinid's failure to hinder the Christian invasion of Tetouan in 803/1401 and Ceuta in 818/1415. In 869/1465, the Qadiri sharifs of Fez supported the Idrissid Sidi Abdellaziz Waryaghli (d. 880/1475) in his coup d'etat against Sultan Abdellhaqq II putting the Marinid's two centuries reign into a shameful end. The Qadiris also gave allegiance to the new appointed Idrissid sultan Moulay Mohammed Amrani al-Juti in al-Qarawiyyine mosque.
One of the greatest political Shadhili masters in the sixteenth century Morocco was a Berber from the town of Taza called Sidi Mohammed ibn Yajbash Tazi (d. 920/1514). Shaykh Ibn Yajbash was a disciple of Sidi Mohammed Zaytouni and was noted as a juridical Sufi, social reformist, and advocate for jihad. He was also known for his poetry, which stimulated an entire genre of socially conscious didactic verse among the Sufis of Morocco and western Algeria. Although Shaykh Ibn Yajbash appears never to have been a disciple of Sidi Mohammed al-Jazouli, his writings show unmistakable Jazulite influence. This is apparent in the introduction of his most important work, Kitab al-jihad, which celebrates "all of those who say 'My Lord is God' and follow the Straight Path' (kullu man qala Rabbi Allah thumma istaqam). This is a clear reference to al-Jazouli's nowlost treaties on Sufism, an-Nush at-tamm liman qala Rabbi Allah thumma istaqam. Kitab al-jihad is an overtly political work that was inspired by the fall of the Atlantic port of Asila to the Portuguese in 876/1471. it was written to exhort the ulama of Morocco to awaken the social and political crises that plugged their region and to undertake the reforms that were necessary to unite the Muslim community in its defense. The beginning of this work is written in the style of khutba, a Friday sermon, and evokes a stark image of impending doom:
Worshippers of God! What is this great negligence that has fixed itself in your hearts, upon which the ego relies, and which has negated proper guidance and God's favour? Are you not aware that your enemies are investigating you and are employing every strategy in order to get you? They have gathered together in numbers and too large to count and have sent their spies and scouts to every land in order to inform them of what your numbers are, as well as your strengths and convictions. They have told their leaders of your foolishness and negligence, and that your numbers, compared to theirs, are as insignificance and as weak as can be. For you are divided against your Muslim brothers and care nothing about debasing the religion of the Lord of Messengers and taking [as captives] the believing worshipers of God.
Once they have known everything about your conditions, your lack of care, and preoccupations, they will crave… to attain their goals. Then they will gather… and go out into these lands. But they will be satisfied neither with possessing it nor with obtaining wealth and slaves. Instead, they will cause glory and happiness into debasement and sorrow. They will cause despair and expulsion to prevail, both in feeling and in fact. [The people of this land] will be shackled with chains and irons and everyday they will suffer grievous agony; they will become like chattel and slaves and those who only yesterday were rich and secure will be poor and afraid. They will be robbed of their possession, their material conditions will be upset, their women will be separated from them, their daughters will be taken from them, and the unbelievers will complete over the prices at which they will purchase them.
So what is this negligence about your brothers, oh Muslims? Even now, [the unbelievers] are watching you at every moment in time. They are not satisfied with food, nor do they find rest in sleep. What is the condition of one who lies fettered in chains or shackles and under arrest? These [unfortunates] only serve [their masters] beneath reprimands and blows, with abuse, slaps, and insults; they will find neither pity nor mercy; they cannot imagine the sorrow and affliction that they undergo; their tears will pour down their cheeks and they will be overcome by sadness that knows no relief! Is there anyone who can cool these embers? Where is the compassion of the people of Islam? Where is the mercy of Sidna Mohammed's (peace and blessing be upon him) umma, who are characterised by the noblest of qualities—the devotees of the one who is famous for his excellence and the instrument of attainment of God?
Like Shaykh Jazouli before him, Sidi Ibn Yajbash Tazi believed that the true Islam could be found among those who dared to put their lives on the line as holy warriors. Best of all are the lovers of God who sought union with their Creator through the loss of life or limb: "Where are the lovers? Where is the one who desires salvation in this beauty? Where is the one who hungers to attain his desire in the sweetness of union? By the grace of God you have attained your hopes, oh seeker! You have reached your desires, oh lover! The One you have longed for will not cause you to be frightened at the coming of death, nor will He deny you the eternal happiness that you so passionately desire by ending what is merely short-lived!
The Chefchaouen master Shaykh Sidi Abdellah Habti (d. 963-1556), a disciple of Shaykh Ibn Yajbash, was by far the most successful at combining social activism and Sufi reformism in a single career. Sidi Habti's critiques of Moroccan society are perceived in a remarkable didactic poem known as the Alfiyya, which had long been used in Morocco as a method for teaching grammar, and was first introduced as a way of distributing the doctrines of Qadiri reformist Sufism by the Sidi Mohammed Ibn Yajbash Tazi. Like his master Ibn Yajbash, Sidi Habti believed that the main cause of the social ills besetting Morocco was the loss of faith. Sidi Habti's educational programme emphasised instruction in the Shari'a and the development of a reading knowledge of the Arabic language. However, although he focused most of his attention on social reform, Sidi Habti did not overlook the obligation of Jihad against the Portuguese. He and his Shadhilite associate from Chefchaouen Sidi Mohammed ibn Khajju (d. 956/1550) travelled widely around northern Morocco, calling for Muslim unity in the face of Christian threat.
The venerated Qutb Sidi Ahmed Qadiri al-Yamani (d. 1113/1698) is certainly the most important Qadiri figure in the twelfth/seventeenth century Morocco. The Shaykh was born and educated in the Sudan. He was initiated into the Qadiriya at the hands ofa Shaykh from Borno (currently located in Nigeria) called Sidi Abdellah ibn Abdelljalil al-Barnawi (d. 1129/1714). In 1127/1712, the latter had been sent by God to guide al-Qutb Moulay Abdellaziz ibn Masoud Dabbagh al-Hassani al-Fasi (d. 1132/1719). Seven months afterward he had his first waking vision of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) in Fez. At this, al-Barnawi rejoiced saying, "Oh Abdellaziz, before today I worried about you, but today, since God has united you with His mercy, the lord of existence, peace and blessing be upon him, my heart is secure and my mind is at ease.” He prayed for him and returned to hi own country. Sidi Ahmed Qadiri al- Yamani had another main Shaykh, i.e. Sidi Abul Mohammed al-Barmadi, who is linked to Moulay Abdellqadir Jilani through Sidi Ali ibn Haddad: the first founder of the Qadiriya in Yemen.
Sometime around the year 1081/1666 Sidi Ahmed ibn Abdellah Yamani entered Fez and soon later earned colossal fame in the circles of ulama, sharifs and Sufis. He became tied to the Shadhilite lodge of Sidi Abu Bakr Majjati Dilai (d. 1021/1606) and initiated numerous noted saints such as Sidi Ahmed ibn Abd al-'Hay al-'Halabi al-Fasi (d. 1120/1708) and Sidi Mohammed ibn Ahmed al-Misnawi (d. 1136/1724). Moreover, he was very crucial in the spiritual excellence of the Shaykh Sidi Ahmed Ben Abdellah Ma'in al-Fasi (d. 112o/17o5) and his son Sidi al-Arbi. Sidi Ahmed ibn Ajiba al-Hassani (d. 1224/1809) remarks in his Fahrasa that Sidi Ahmed had received Qadiri training from Shaykh Yamani in Fez. Sidi Qacem Khassasi (d. 1083/1677), who had transmitted him the Shadhiliya, had already died when Sidi Ahmed had not yet reached mystic maturity. Before dying, he said: "Someone will come to perfect you." Shaykh Yamani came to perfect him, as matter of fact, and went to great expense for the disciple." Note that Sidi Ahmed Ben Abdellah Ma'in was himself a teacher of Moulay Abdellaziz Dabbagh. The latter's sound chain however goes back to the Qutb Sidi Mhammed ibn Nasir Dar’i (d. 1085/1674) through Sidi Omar ibn Mohammed al-Huwwari (d. 1127/1712) and Sidi al-Arbi al-Fashtali (d. 1090/1675).
Interestingly, we find among the greatest pupils of Sidi Abdellah (d. 1188/1778), the grandson of Sidi Ahmed Ma'in al-Fasi, the Concealed Pole, Sidna Shaykh, Mawlana Abul Abbas Ahmed Tijani al-Hassani(1150/1735 -1230/1815). We learn in Kitab Jawahir al-ma'ani wa-bulugh al-amani fi fayd Sidi Abil al-Abbas at-Tijani (Gems of Indications and Attainment of Aspirations in the Overflowings of Sidi Abil Abbas Tijani) that Sidna Shaykh talked with Sidi Abdellah on various issues and before they had bidden each other farewell, Sidna Shaykh prayed to God to award him the good things of this world and the hereafter. The final words from the Shaykh Sidi Abdellah were, "May Allah stand by you", spoken thrice". Long before Sidna Shaykh became a teacher of the Khalwatiya path, which he took from the Idrissid Sharif, Abu Abdellah Sidi Mhammed ibn Abderrahman al-Azhari (d. 1280/1793), the Shaykh Sidi Mahmoud al-Kurdi al-Iraqi al-Misri (d. 1186/1771), and the Ghawt Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdelkarim al-Samman (d. 1189/1774) to become by the course of time the Master of the Ahmediya Mohammediya Ibrahimiya ‘Hanifiya order, Sidna Shaykh had already taken the Shadhiliya from other sources: the Qutb Moulay Tayyeb ibn Mohammed ibn Moulay Abdellah Sharif al-Wazzani (d. 1181/1766), Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdullah al-Tuzzani (d. after 1171/1756), Sidi Abul Abbas Ahmed al-Tawwash (d. 1206/1791), Sidi Mohammed ibn al-Hassan al-Wanjali al-Zabibi (d. 1185/1770), and Sidi Abul Abbas Ahmed ibn Abdellah al-Hindi (d. 1187/1773). Another famous companions of Sidi al-Arbi are Sidi Ali al-Jamal Amrani (d. 1193/1778), who was himself the teacher of Moulay al-Arbi Darqawi al-Hassani (d. 1239/1824). Sidi Ali al-Jamal has also companied Moulay Tayyeb ibn Mohammed al-Wazzani(d. 1181/1766) for many years.
سيدي أحمد بن العياشي سكيرج في الإغتباط
بالجواب عن الأسئلة الواردة علينا من
الأغواط: إن غالب الطرق بالمغرب الأقصى
يرجع سندها إلى الشيخ أبي الحسن الشاذلي
رضي الله عنه، وطريقته هي الأصل الأصيل
في السلوك على قدم التربية بالتحلية
والتخلية، وبالهمة والحال في السلوك في
مدارج الترقية، وجميع الطرق المتفرعة
عنها مؤسسة بالإذن الخاص والعام باتباع
ما جاء في الكتاب والسنة، وقليل من قليل
المريدين الصادقين فيها من خرج عن
المنهج القويم، بالمحافظة على السند في
العمل بما جاء به الشرع إلى الوقوف على
عين الحقيقة في سلوك الطريقة، وهكذا من
سلك على الطريقة القادرية التي يرتفع
سند بعض الطرق إليها إلى بلوغ المقصد،
وأن إلى ربك المنتهى، فيما تحرز عليه
هذه الطرق من المدد في السير على قدم
الجد والاجتهاد، في كل من انتسب من فروع
هذين الطريقتين، وغيرهما من طرق
الصوفية الذين لهم حسن اقتداء بإمام
الطائفة الجنيد رضي الله عن الجميع، ومن
أهل الله من تظاهر بطريقة خاصة به
بالإذن الخاص من الحضرة المحمدية، مثل
طريقتنا المحمدية التجانية، فهي غير
متفرعة عما ذكرناه. وإنما تلقاها الشيخ
قدس سره عن النبي (صلى الله عليه وسلم)
مشافهة، وأخبره بأنه لا منة لأحد من
الشيوخ عليه في طريقه التي أمره
بتلقينها لأحبابه ومريديه، وستكون أما
لطرق عديدة متفرعة عنها طبق ما نص عليه
الخليفة سيدي الحاج علي حرازم برادة في
الرسالة الشامية وقد ذكرتها برمتها في
تأليفنا رفع النقاب في ترجمته، ولا يخفى
عنك أن طرق الصوفية مع تعددها منزلة
المذاهب، يرجع الجميع إلى طريقة واحدة،
وهي التي كان عليها النبي (صلى الله عليه
وسلم)، وتبعه فيها أصحابه رضي الله
عنهم، وكل واحد من الصحابة قدس سرهم
بمنزلة شيخ طريقة متفرعة عن الكتاب
والسنة، ورحم الله البوصيري حيث يقول في
حقهم رضوان الله عليهم كلهم في أحكامه
ذو اجتهاد…وصواب وكلهم صلحاء فلا ينبغي
أن يعترض أهل مذهب على مذهب آخر فيما لا
يخالف أصلا من أصول الشريعة، وهكذا بقية
الطرق، إلا أنه قد حدثت في جل الطرق حسب
الأغراض مخالفة الشيوخ فيما دلوا عليه
مريديهم، فوقع الإنكار عليهم بما ترامى
فيه المبغضون على الشيوخ البرءاء بما
نسبوه إليهم، أو تقولوه عليهم طبق ما
أشرنا إليه سابقا، فحرم الله أهل
الإنكار ومن في معناهم من غلاة المريدين
من النفع التام والفضل المنوط بالإتباع
للمحقين من أهل الإعتقاد الجميل وحسن
الظن، وللسالكين في هذه الطرق مشارب،
وكل يعمل على شاكلته، على أننا لا نقول
بعصمة الشيوخ ومريديهم من عدم صدور خطئ
منهم في بعض ما يعتقدونه، أو يعملون به
أو يقولونه، فإنما العصمة للأنبياء
والملائكة، وإن كان بعض الأولياء
محفوظا من الوقوع في الخطإ والخطايا،
إلى درجة تكاد أن تكون عصمة في حقهم بعد
تمكنهم في مقام الولاية، ولكن لا يصلون
إلى مقام النبوة فيها، وقد تغالى بعض
المنتسبين لبعض الطرق فخالفوا شيوخهم
بالمرة. وليس لهم مما كان عليه شيخهم سوى
الإنتساب إليه بما تلبسوا به من البدع
الضالة، وطريقة شيخهم بريئة منهم، ولا
تعين أهل طريقة من هذه الطرق، فإن
المعين مبتدع مخالف بجرح العواطف، لما
كان عليه المشرع عليه الصلاة والسلام من
ستر العورات، والإشارة بطرف خفي
للهفوات، ليجتنبها المتلبس بها.وأما
العدد الذي بلغت إليه الطرق في مغربنا،
فلا يمكن حصرها بعد الشاذلية والقادرية
وما قبلهما من طريقة الجنيد رضي الله عن
الجميع، لأن فروعها كادت أن تنفرد
بالتسمية بمن ظهر فرع منها على يديه،
فإن الجزولية مثلا تنسب إلى العارف سيدي
محمد بن سليمان الجزولي لظهور أورادها
على يديه مع كونه شاذليا، وهناك طريقة
جزولية أخرى منسوبة لغيره، وقد تفرعت
بعده إلى فروع مثل الشاذلية، حتى كادت
أن تنسى الطريقة الشاذلية باشتهار بعض
ما تفرع منها من الطرق، وهكذا الشأن في
غيرها من الطرق التي ذكرتم في السؤال مع
أن أصلها الأصيل الشاذلية والقادرية.
وما ينسب إلى الجنيد إلى ما قبله من أئمة
الدين من الصحابة فتابعيهم رضوان الله
عن الجميع. ولسنا ممن ينصب موازين القسط
في تفضيل طريقة على أخرى من الطرق التي
ذكرتم والتي لم تذكروا، مع تحققنا بأن
مقاصد شيوخها قصد واحد، وهو الأخذ بيد
مريدهم بوصوله إلى حضرة الحق الأعلى،
ولم يضمنوا مريديهم من عدم صدور مخالفة
شرعية منهم، فإن الهداية بيد الله. وقد
كنت شرعت في تويلف صغير سميته بتنوير
الأفق في الطرق فذكرت منها ما يزيد على
الستين طريقة بذكر أصولها وفروعها
باختصار، ولعل الله ييسر وقتا لإتمامه
وإخراجه من مبيضته للإنتفاع به.
The venerated Qadirite figure Sidi Mohammed Ma' El Aynain (“his nickname he received as a child, meaning ‘water of the eyes’ in Arabic”; d. 1246/1831) had also ties to the Shadhilite master Sidi Mhammed ben Nasir Dar'i (d. 1085/1674). In 1898, Sidi Mohammed Ma' El Aynain, who succeeded his father Sidi Mohammed Fadil Ould Māmīn (1797–1869) as head of the Qadirite Fadiliya Sufi order, began building the town of Smara, in the Moroccan Sahara. The Sultan of Morocco, Moulay El Hassan I, who sent craftsmen and materials, assisted him in the construction. In 1902, once the main parts of the city were completed, he moved and based himself there, creating, among other things, an important Islamic library. The Shaykh, who was a great esoteric and exoteric Sufi and a charismatic political leader for his inspiration and leadership of a Sahrawi resistance movement in a six years holy war (1904–1910) against French and Spanish colonization in the Sahara, took advantage of his sharifian origin and military skills to establish the order among Sahrawi tribes. The Shaykh took part in all aspects of his group's life and quickly became a political and social leader, as well as a religious and spiritual one, a saint protector and a savior. This close link between religious and socio-political power, which was sustained by his successors, became one of the Fadiliyyah’s distinguishing characteristics.Increasingly disturbed by Western penetration of the area, which he viewed both as an intrusion by hostile foreign powers and as a Christian assault on Islam, Sidi Ma al-'Aynayn started to advocate resistance. Sahrawi tribes performed ghazi raids against the foreign forces even before that, but French troops drew ever closer, conquering one local ruler after the other. In 1904, Sidi Ma al-'Aynayn proclaimed himself imam, and called for Jihad against the colonizers. The Shaykh gained the support of the Moroccan Sultan proclaiming the trab al-beidan —a desert area that includes today's Mauritania and large swaths of Mali and Algeria—was under the Sultan's rule. This display of effective cooperation helped assemble a large coalition of tribes to fight the colonizers. Sidi Ma’ al-'Aynayn began acquiring firearms and other materials, both through channels in Morocco and through direct negotiations with rival European powers such as Germany and Spain, and quickly built up an impressive fighting force. Sidi Mohammed Ma' El Aynain was succeeded by his son Sidi Mohammed Loghdof (b. 1290/1875). As both marabout and leader of the Reguibat tribe, he soon became known to the French as 'our bitter enemy'. As Sultan Hassan I's representative in the Moroccan Sahara during the latter years of the nineteenth century, Sidi Mohammed Loghdof is famed for continuing the Saharan resistance. Another of Sidi Ma' El Aynain's sons, Sidi Ahmed al-Hiba (d. 1351 /1934), achieved the virtually impossible in 1911 by storming the colonial jewel of Marrakech. Although Sidi Ahmed al-Hiba was forced out of the city within a month, by his act of defiance he achieved immortality, and became known as the 'Blue Sultan'. For the next two decades like his Riffian counterparts Abdelkarim Khattabi, Sidi Ahmed al-Hiba continued his father's work as dissident leader, fighting with considerable success in the Sahara and Anti Atlas until 1934, when he was finally beaten and the South succumbed to European control.